Sun, 8 June 2014
Sankhkare Montuhotep III and Punt.
Led by Henenu, Steward and Chief of the Six Courts of Justice, the expedition's destination is none other than the legendary Punt.
They will trade for myrrh, incense, and gum arabic, and return home victorious.
A head from Thebes, possibly Montuhotep III. From Dorothea Arnold (1991)
Montuhotep III, from the Louvre.
Montuhotep's kingdom and the reach of Henenu's expedition.
Gum Arabic. Wikipedia.
Senegalese traders exchanging gum arabic.
Egyptian papyrus rope, discovered in the Mersa Gawasis. Discover Magazine.
An Egyptian anchor, discovered on the Red Sea coast. Limestone.
Thu, 29 May 2014
After only 45% of voters turned out for elections, Abdul Fattah al-Sisi, Egypt's interim military leader, is heading for a landslide victory.
Many groups boycotted the election, citing a lack of faith in both major candidates.
Category:general -- posted at: 8:11pm +12
Thu, 22 May 2014
Montuhotep II (Part III) and Nubia.
His rule secured, and Egypt united under one ruler, Nebhepetre Montuhotep II is ready for war once more.
Into Nubia, the Eastern Desert, and Palestine, Egyptian troops advance their king's agenda. These wars will bring plunder and captives back into the kingdom, perhaps stimulating greater productivity in a Nile Valley still recovering from the Long Drought and the conflicts between Thebes and Herakleopolis.
The imy-rah mesha "overseer of troops" Intef. Servant of Montuhotep II.
The King is embraced by Montu. British Museum.
Fragments of the decoration at Deir el-Bahari. Navile, The XIth Dynasty Temple, Vol. 1.
(G) a soldier grasps the leg of his foe, ready to strike.
Egyptian soldiers attack a fortified town, from the tomb of Intef at Thebes. 11th Dynasty (Brown.edu).
Other fragments of the temple, with scenes of fighting. Navile, Vol. 1.
Nubian warriors of the XIth Dynasty. National Geographic.
Montuhotep's Egyptian kingdom.
Lazlo Török. Between Two Worlds. 2009.
Wed, 7 May 2014
Montuhotep II (Part II) and His Court.
The Thebans have finally conquered the North, and defeated their rivals - the Herakleopolitan kings.
Now they must deal with an expanded domain and population, with all the administrative headaches those bring. Monuthotep II, the Victorious, begins to re-organise his government and curb the power of provincial officials.
At Deir el-Bahari, the funerary temple is expanded with beautiful statues. Meanwhile, preparations for the war in Nubia continue, aided by the Vizier Dagi and the royal bodyguard, Horus-Hotep.
A colossal statue of Montuhotep II, from Deir el-Bahari. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Two sons (?) of the Vizier Dagi; from his tomb, near Deir el-Bahari.
Cliff-tombs of the XIth Dynasty at Thebes, near Deir el-Bahari (click for larger image).
In the foreground are the remains of a Saite Period (mid-1st Millennium BCE) temple/tomb.
Red arrows indicate the tomb entrances.
At left can be seen Hatshepsut's mortuary temple of Dynasty XVIII.
Herbert E. Winlock. "The Theban Necropolis in the Middle Kingdom." The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures. Vol. 32 (1915).
Sat, 19 April 2014
Montuhotep II (Part I) at Thebes.
The First Intermediate Period is drawing to a close; the Thebans have conquered the North, at last.
Now, Montuhotep II, King of Upper and Lower Egypt, must take a thought for the afterlife. To celebrate his victory, and ensure his immortality, the King expands his Mortuary Temple, now under construction west of Thebes.
The temple at Deir al-Bahari is a fascinating structure, which will influence tomb-builders right up to the legendary Hatshepsut of Dynasty 18.
A stela of King Montuhotep II. The elongated proportions and bright eyes bear all the hallmarks of First Intermediate Period artwork. Louvre Museum of Art.
Queen Kawit. FineArtAmerica.
A stela of Intef II, king of Thebes. Met. Museum of Fine Art.
The Deir el-Bahari monument. AncientEgyptOnline.
Queen Khemsit. Edouard Naville, The XIth Dynasty Temple... Vol. 3, plate 3.
The burial chamber of Montuhotep II.
Tue, 25 March 2014
First Intermediate Period (Part III): Khety vs. Intef.
After years of intermittent conflict, and attempts at conquest, the time has come for a final showdown between Egypt's two royal factions.
The House of Intef (at Thebes) are pushing northward; in the North, the House of Khety stands firm.
Local rulers at Asyut fight for the North, battering their opponents violently.
Marcel Zitman, The Necropolis of Assiut, 2010.
Taken (for educational purposes) from Vangelis' work for Alexander, this small piece can be found at 21:10 in the podcast. Buy the soundtrack on Amazon, here: Vangelis - Alexander OST [Amazon]
Wed, 12 February 2014
The First Intermediate Period (Part II): A Kingdom Divided.
The House of Khety continues to rule Lower Egypt. Its current ruler, Khety III, is guided by the Teachings of his father, Merykare. An eloquent and informative piece, the Teachings of Merykare stand as one of the finer pieces of didactic literature.
But trouble is brewing...
At Thebes, the House of Intef has arisen to challenge their northern rivals. Displacing local princes, such as Ankh-tyfy, the Thebans begin to confederate and assert their power against the Northerners.
Sun, 26 January 2014
The First Intermediate Period (Part I): a Collapse.
Pepy II is gone, and with him the last well-documented reign of the Old Kingdom.
Egypt is now disunited; in the North, the House of Khety has taken power and rule from Herakleopolis.
Although not necessarily a period of chaos, or tragedy, it is remembered negatively by later Egyptians. Ipuwer, a New Kingdom writer, describes the "memory" of the F.I.P. in his literary text, The Lamentations.
Sun, 5 January 2014
Pepy II (Part III).
The longest lived ruler of Egypt, Pepy II, has now reached his final years. The economic situation is worsening, as climate change brings drought and famine to the Nile Valley.
The end of the Old Kingdom is approaching, and the change will be bumpy.
Juan Carlos Moreno Garcia. Ancient Egyptian Administration. Brill Publishing, 2013.
Fekri A. Hassan. "Droughts, Famine and the Collapse of the Old Kingdom: Re-reading Ipuwer." The Archaeology of Ancient Egypt - Essays in Honor of David B. O'Connor. 2007.
Toby H. Wilkinson. The Egyptian World. 2007.
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