Tue, 29 September 2015
Second Intermediate Period (Part II).
c.1650 BCE, Egypt is invaded from the East. They come from an unknown region of Arabia/Palestine/Syria, and have overthrown the Canaanites of the Delta.
They subjugate the lands from Memphis to the Mediterranean. They capture the necropolis and tombs of the sacred cities. They compel the Kings of Upper Egypt to pay them tribute.
They are the Hyksos, and their coming is a watershed in the history of the country.
The territory of the Hyksos; border in red (Full Resolution).
Nadine Moeller, et al., "Discussion of Late Middle Kingdom and Early Second Intermediate Period History and Chronology in Relation to the Khayan Sealings From Edfu." Egypt and the Levant, XXI (2011). FREE on Academia.edu.
Wolfram Grajetzki, "Notes on Administration in the Second Intermediate Period," The Second Intermediate Period, 2010.
Charlotte Booth, The Hyksos Period in Egypt, 2008.
Wed, 9 September 2015
Second Intermediate Period (Part I).
In 1700 BCE, Egypt is suddenly riven in two. The Delta, populated by a mixture of native Egyptians and second/third-generation Canaanite immigrants is afflicted with a catastrophic famine and plague.
Unable to gain aid from the Kings of Dynasty 13, they rebel and establish their own kingdom. We follow the consequences of this, and how the new state responded to its situation and mixed population.
Plague pit discovered at Avaris (Source: Gregory Mumford).
The hypothesised bordes of the two kingdoms (Larger Resolution).
The digitally reconstructed palace of Avaris, capital of the Delta kingdom c.1700-1550 BCE (Source: Gregory Mumford).
The wonderful funerary statue of 13th Dynasty king Aw-ib-Re Hor, otherwise anonymous (Source: Global Egyptian Museum).
Manfred Bietak, "Egypt and Canaan During the Middle Bronze Age," Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Research, 1991.
Janine Bourriau, "The Second Intermediate Period" in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, 2004.
Irene Forstner-Muller, "Tombs and Burial Customs..." in The Second Intermediate Period: Current Research, Future Prospects, 2010.
Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, 1994.
Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, 2010.
Wolfram Grajetzki, The Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, 2006.
Gregory D. Mumford, "Dynasties 13-17: The Second Intermediate Period," Lecture Series.